New technologies would allow geothermal plants to be built in places where Earth’s heat is farther from the surface. 

A group of startups and researchers are developing technologies to expand the output of geothermal energy.

Geothermal plants produce steam from underground reservoirs of hot, porous rocks saturated with water, and channel it into electricity-making turbines or pipes that heat buildings. Although the energy is virtually free of carbon emissions, its adoption has been limited because drilling gets more expensive and more difficult as it goes deeper.

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